Well , here’s the grammar we did this week! Passives, Must , infinitive of purpose!
PASSIVE is /are/was /were
This PC was/ is made in China!
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. (active sentence)
( Agent V
Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. (passive sentence)
The passive is formed from be + past participle. (ONLY BE CHANGES!)
I was born in London. Where and when were you born? I wasn’t born in Ca.
MADE in Italy. Fiat cars ARE MADE in Italy. My watch is made in China! Is this wine made in Sardinia?
She has been to France! This car will be made by robots in the future!
Often we don’t include the agent of the action, because we do not know the agent; the agent is not important; the agent is obvious.
They clean the offices every day.
The offices are cleaned every day.
FIATS ARE MADE IN ITALY.
……………. WAS WRITTEN BY………..; WAS PAINTED BY; WAS DIRECTED BY; WAS MADE IN (YEAR, COUNTRY); was sung by
Questions (Subject questions!)
Who painted the Mona Lisa? Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa. WHAT DID L.PAINT?
Who wrote Harry Potter?
NB Who saw Luca? ( John saw Luca)
Who did Luca see? ( Luca saw Mike)
May might MAY I SIT HERE?
Can could I CAN SWIM.
Must ought to*
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without “to” (Exception “ought to”) The form is the same for all persons.
Eg, CAN in all forms ( NB he, she, it can)
(-) add NOT
I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they cannot (can’t) come
Can you swim?
Can you come to my party?
MUST /HAVE TO
Express rules or things that are necessary.
The house is dirty. I must clean it.
We don’t have any money. We must go to the bank.
Sometimes we can use either:
It’s a great book. You must/have to read it! He has to/must read the book!
NB when we talk about rules we often use “have to”
(Must generally refers to internal obligation , things that the speaker feels is necessary. )
“Have to” often expresses an external obligation ( a law, a rule etc. )
I must remember to buy some milk ( I feel that it is necessary.)
You have to have a license to drive a car! ( law!)
Remember that “have to” is conjugated ! ( have to/ has to)
Do you have to wear a uniform at school?
Expresses a prohibition, not allowed!(sbagliato o proibito farlo)
You mustn’t touch the picture. It’s very valuable!
You mustn’t smoke here!
CAREFUL!!! (DING DING DING!!!)
Don’t/doesn’t have to mean that IT is NOT NECESSARY TO DO SOMETHING( NON SONO TENUTO A FARLO(OBBLIGATO A FARLO).
You don’t have to read Hamlet for the English lab! ( You can read it if you want!)
YOU mustn’t read the Kama Sutra! (Vietato!!!!)
INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE
We use “to + infinitive” to say why we do things.
Why did you go to the butcher’s?”
“I went to the butcher’s to buy some meat!”
They’re going to London to see the Queen!
Looks like the lesson by popular demand will be on 13.12.2011- will confirm time during lesson!
Enjoy the weekend , rain or shine???