Nov 182011
 

Hello!

           Here’s what we did this week! Present Perfect, more Present perfect and more Present Perfect!!!

Here’s the grammar!!!

 

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (1. For experience)

 S  AUX (HAVE)  PAST PARTICIPLE                                        

I ‘ve (have)        had                                       many different jobs in my life!

NEGATIVE

S  AUX (HAVE)+ not  PAST PARTICIPLE

I haven’t                             been               to the United States but I have been to Canada.

QUESTION

AUX (HAVE)  S  PAST PARTICIPLE     ?

Have you ever been to New York?         Have you ever eaten sushi?

 

Short answers

Yes, I have / No, I haven’t.   No, never!  (I’ve never been to France!)

 

We are talking about the experience NOT when it happened. CFR

I’ve met Madonna!                                                       I met her two years ago.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE JUST(appena)

John and Sue have JUST arrived.

I’ve JUST had lunch!

 

ALREADY (già) (affirmative sentences usually)

Jim has already gone to bed.  They have already arrived!

 

YET (negatives and questions) NB its position.

I haven’t finished yet! ( non ancora) I’ve already finished!

Have you been to see the new film yet?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (1. For since)

The present perfect expresses unfinished states that began in the past and continue into the present.

 

How long have you been a teacher? I’VE BEEN A TEACHER SINCE 1980./ FOR 29 YEARS.

HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN ca? I’VE LIVED IN CA SINCE 1982/FOR 27 Years.

For twenty years = period of time

Since 1989         = a point in time

 

                               FOR                                                                                      SINCE (always Present Perfect)

10 minutes                         3 years                                                Tuesday              10 o’clock

A week                                               a month                                        January 24                I arrived

2 days                                  a long time                                  I was a child              Christmas

For ever      for ages                                                            1976         I was a born

How long have you lived in London?

 

I’VE LIVED IN VENICE FOR TWO YEARS/since 2010.

I lived in Venice for two years.

For 2 months       =  Since August.

 

 

NB.   AGO  

I arrived here 2 years ago.  Cfr

When did John arrive in Paris?       How long has John been in Paris?

He arrived here a week ago.           He’s been here for a week/ since last Monday.

 

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNFINISHED TIME

We use the PRESENT PERFECT with expressions like this week, in the last few months, today, this morning; all of these are connected to the present time.

I’ve had six cups of coffee today! ( Today is not finished)

How often have you been to the cinema this year? ( This year is not finished)

The Past Simple is used to talk about finished actions and states that happen in a period of time that is finished and not connected to the Present Time. We use time phrases like “ last week, three years ago”.

I drank six cups of coffee yesterday!

I went to the cinema last week

 

 

 

Present  Perfect Simple with been  and gone

Go went gone (been)

Ann has been to London.  She has come back. (Be was /were been )

 You:“Hello Ann! Where have you been?

Ann: “I’ve been to London!”

You ;What was London like?” 

Ann: “It was great! I saw Big Ben!”

Where have you been ?  have you ever been to Paris?

 

 

 

Ann has gone to London! She’s still there! Go went gone (been)

John: “Where’s Ann?”

Mike: “She’s not here! She’s  gone to London on business!”

 NO !!!!!!!Where have you gone??? XXXXXXXXX NO

 

Don’t forget that you need to practice as much as possible.!!! Talk to yourself!!! Imaginary conversations!!!

Try a drill !!! Take a simple sentence like:

I go to the cinema!!!   Negative

I don’t go ……………………

Do you go …………………………….

I went to the cinema yesterday!

I didn’t go ……

Did you go………..?

Then try Present Cont. ; past Contin;  Present perfect ; Future (all 3 forms) ; may/ might/ should; Invite/suggest  (Answer too!)

 

DO you get the idea!!!!

 

  Enjoy your weekend!!

  SAllyD

 

 

 

 

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