|Titolo:||Interference of some tryptophan metabolites in the formation of melanin in vitro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2004|
|Abstract:||Melanin (eumelanin) is commonly produced in mammals starting from tyrosine and/or 3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA) under the action of tyrosinase. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine are intermediates occurring in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism. In this paper, we show that these substances can interfere in melanin formation in vitro when tyrosine or DOPA is oxidized by molecular oxygen under catalysis by tyrosinase. In particular, when 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid is present, a brown and apparently water-soluble pigment is formed, whereas the typical eumelanin granules seem to become more and more rare as the concentration of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid increases. Also in the presence of the latter, the rate of tyrosine and/or DOPA consumption decreases. A very complicated 13C-NMR spectrum indicates the high complexity of the reaction. This involves both the true melanin precursor(s) and the tryptophan metabolite, even if with peculiar mechanism and kinetics. When 3-hydroxykynurenine is substituted for 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid the reaction leads to reddish pigments whereas xanthommatins (the typical oxidation products of 3-hydroxykynurenine) are absent. A possible relationship between some dischromic pathologies and tryptophan metabolic disorders is suggested.|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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