|Abstract: ||The purpose of the present study was to formulate new vesicular carriers to optimize the topical delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs: diclofenac, quercetin and curcumin.
In the first work concentrated and interconnected penetration enhancer containing vesicles (PEVs) are proposed as carriers for dermal delivery of diclofenac. PEVs were prepared by using a commercial phosphatidylcholine mixture (180 mg/m) and transcutol in different amounts. Conventional liposomes were also prepared and tested as control. All vesicles showed a mean size ranging from 75 to 253 nm with fairly narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential value, and drug loading capacity between 48 and 70%. SWAXS studies showed that composition affected vesicle structure and morphology: 10 and 30% transcutol PEVs were unilamellar while liposomes and 20% transcutol PEVs were multilamellar. Rheological studies demonstrated that control liposomes and 10 and 30% transcutol containing PEVs behaved as Newtonian fluids while 20% transcutol containing PEVs showed a plastic behavior. Ex vivo (trans)dermal delivery experiments showed an improved skin deposition of diclofenac when PEVs were used. Vesicle toxicity and
uptake of fibroblasts, target of inflammation treatment, were evaluated by MTT test and fluorescence
microscopy. Control liposomes and PEVs were both able to interact and being internalized by the 3T3
fibroblasts at all time exposure tested. Furthermore, PEVs showed to be able to reduce the in vitro drug
The aim of the second study was to improve the knowledge of drug–glycol–phospholipid-interactions and their effects in lamellar vesicle suitability as drug delivery systems. Liposomes were prepared using hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (P90H, 60 mg/ml) and diclofenac sodium salt at two con-centrations (5–10 mg/ml). To obtain innovative vesicles two permeation enhancers with glycol group, diethyleneglycol monoethyl ether and propylene glycol, were added to the water phase at different ratios (5%, 10%, and 20%). Vesicle organization was deeply investigated by physico-chemical characterization, including differen-tial scanning calorimetry and small-angle diffraction signal analysis while macroscopic structure behavior was evaluated by rheological studies. Results evidenced that the presence of the penetration enhancer and diclofenac sodium salt led to structural rearrangements within and among vesicles forming a tridi-mensional and complex architecture in which vesicles were closely packed and interconnected. This new design allowed a change in the physical state of dispersions that became highly viscous liquid or soft-solid-like, thus forming an ideal system for topical application able of both adhering to the skin and delivering the drug. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In the last work biocompatible quercetin and curcumin nanovesicles were developed as a novel approach to prevent and restore skin tissue defects on chronic cutaneous pathologies. Stable and suitable quercetin- and curcumin-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely liposomes and penetration enhancercontaining vesicles (PEVs), were prepared. Vesicles were made from a highly biocompatible mixture of phospholipids and alternatively a natural polyphenol, quercetin or curcumin. Liposomes were obtained by adding water, while PEVs by adding polyethylene glycol 400 and Oramix_CG110 to the water phase. Transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and small- and wideangle X-ray scattering showed that vesicles were spherical, oligo- or multilamellar and small in size (112–220 nm). In vitro and in vivo tests underlined a good effectiveness of quercetin and curcumin nanovesicles in counteracting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced lesions and inflammation. Myeloperoxydase activity, used to gauge inflammation, was markedly inhibited by quercetin liposomes (59%) and curcumin liposomes and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PEVs (_68%). Histology showed that PEG-PEVs provided an extensive re-epithelization of the TPA-damaged skin, with multiple layers of thick epidermis. In conclusion, nanoentrapped polyphenols prevented the formation of skin lesions abrogating the various biochemical processes that cause epithelial loss and skin damage.|