|Titolo:||Histatin-induced alterations in Candida albicans: a microscopic and submicroscopic comparison|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Abstract:||Despite the numerous studies performed in an attempt to clarify the issue, the mechanism of action of salivary histatins remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to correlate histatin-induced morphological changes in Candida albicans by fluorescence microscopy (FM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Each of the fluorescent dyes used by FM (i.e., tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate for mitochondrial potential, Lysotracker for lysosome acidic compartment, and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride for DNA) exhibited a specific staining in control cells. Following histatin treatment, we observed a recurring staining pattern, corresponding to fluorescence concentration along the cell periphery, suggesting a loss of dye specificity. To assess histatin-induced cytoplasmic modifications, ultrastructural analysis was then carried out. After treatments with histatins, TEM revealed characteristic intracellular modifications including: vacuole overgrowth, nuclear disappearance, loss of organelle identity, as well as the appearance of electrondense membranes, likely of mitochondrial origin. Additionally, structures resembling autophagosomes were occasionally observed. By HRSEM, mitochondrial swelling was invariably the first sign of a histatin-induced effect. Other modifications included intracellular membrane disarrangement, organelles in disarray, and a large central cavity with deformed bodies displaced to the cell periphery, similar to what was detected by TEM. In summary, our study illustrates the occurrence of ultrastructural modifications following administration of histatins. Observations made with FM, TEM, and HRSEM provided different views of the same signs, demonstrating a definite action of histatins on C. albicans morphology. The possible functional meanings of these morphological results is discussed in light of the most recent biochemical data on histatin fungicidal activity.|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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