|Titolo:||Differential distribution of VGF-derived peptides in the adrenal medulla and evidence for their selective modulation|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Abstract:||While vgf gene knockout mice are hyperactive and hypermetabolic, surprisingly the TLQP-21 brain VGF peptide increased energy consumption, suggesting that opposing regulatory effects could be exerted by peptides alternatively cleaved from the VGF precursor. Using antisera to the VGF precursor C-terminus and three cleavage products, we revealed a distinct differential distrobution in adrenal, certain peptides (VGF422-430: PGH peptides) being found throughout bovine and swine medulla, while C-terminus and TLQP peptides were confined to adrenaline cells in the above species and in rat and C-terminally shortened forms (VGF604-612: HVLL peptides) to nor-adrenaline cells. Random abattoir samples of bovine and swine adrenal contained 520 ± 40 and 450 ± 60 pmol/g (mean ± S.E.M. respectively) of C-terminus peptides and similar or lower amounts of others. Upon gel chromatography, bona fide VGF precursor, ∼7.5 and ∼3-5 kDa forms were revealed by C-terminus assays, HVLL peptides being limited to small fragments. TLQP peptides included ∼7.5 kDa form and peaks accounting for TLQP-21 and predicted TLQP-30 and TLQP-42. Low molecular weight (MW) PGH peptides were revealed, together with a high MW form possibly encompassing the VGF precursor N-terminus. In acutely stressed swine, a striking increase was seen for C-terminus and TLQP peptides, with no significant differences for PGH peptides. A similar response was found in rat TLQP peptides showing a major increase upon an acute swimming stress and 30 min thereafter. A differential processing of the VGF precursor encompassing many areas of its primary sequence and selective modulations of its derived peptides occur in adrenal medullary cells, possibly relevant to adaptive homeostatic responses|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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