|Titolo:||Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 in rat olfactory system: layer-specific regulation of multiple signaling pathways in the main olfactory bulb and induction of neurite retraction in olfactory sensory neurons|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Abstract:||Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of four G protein-coupled receptors that are widely distributed in the CNS and involved in neural cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. The olfactory system undergoes continuous neurogenesis throughout life and may represent a critical target of PAR cellular actions. In the present study we investigated the functional activity of PAR1 and PAR2 in microdissected tissue preparations of olfactory nerve-glomerular layer (ON-GL), external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL) of the rat main olfactory bulb and in primary cultures of olfactory neuroepithelial cells. Activation of either PAR1 or PAR2 regulated multiple signaling pathways, including activation of pertussis-toxin sensitive Gi/o proteins, inhibition of cyclic AMP formation, stimulation of Gq/11-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and activation of the monomeric G protein Rho, predominantly in ON-GL, whereas only activation of Rho was detected in the deeper layers. Olfactory nerve lesion by nasal irrigation with ZnSO4 induced a marked decrease of PAR signaling in ON-GL. In primary cultures of olfactory neurons, double immunofluorescence analysis showed the localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in cells positive for olfactory-marker protein and neuron-specific enolase. Cell exposure to either nanomolar concentrations of thrombin and trypsin or PAR-activating peptides caused rapid neurite retraction. This study provides the first characterization of the laminar distribution of PAR1 and PAR2 signaling in rat olfactory bulb, demonstrates the presence of the receptors in olfactory sensory neurons and suggests a role of PARs in olfactory sensory neuron neuritogenesis.|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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