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Titolo: Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of catestatin in spontaneously hypertensive rats: interaction with GABAergic transmission in amygdala and brainstem.
Data di pubblicazione: 2014
Abstract: The chromogranin A-derived peptide catestatin (CST) exerts sympathoexcitatory and hypertensive effects when microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM: excitatory output); it exhibits sympathoinhibitory and antihypertensive effects when microinjected into the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM: inhibitory output) of vagotomized normotensive rats. Here, continuous infusion of CST into the central amygdalar nucleus (CeA) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for 15 days resulted in a marked decrease of blood pressure (BP) in 6-month- (by 37 mm Hg) and 9-month- (by 65 mm Hg)old rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on pyramidal CeA neurons revealed that CST increased both spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) amplitude plus frequency, along with reductions of sIPSC rise time and decay time. Inhibition of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) by bicuculline completely abolished CST-induced sIPSC, corroborating that CST signals occur through this major neuroreceptor complex. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases, leading to vascular dementia and neurodegeneration. We found a marked neurodegeneration in the amygdala and brainstem of 9-month-old SHRs, while CST and the GABAAR agonist Muscimol provided significant neuroprotection. Enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK accounted for these neuroprotective effects through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Overall our results point to CST exerting potent antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects plausibly via a GABAergic output, which constitute a novel therapeutic measure to correct defects in blood flow control in disorders such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease.
Tipologia:1.1 Articolo in rivista

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