|Titolo:||Prospecting for safe (low fluoride) groundwater in the Eastern African Rift: a multidisciplinary approach in the Arumeru District (Northern Tanzania)|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Abstract:||Abstract. A multidisciplinary research effort, including ge- ological, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical, geophysical and hydrological investigations, was aimed at locating a source of safe groundwater for a district of northern Tanzania, within the western branch of the East Africa Rift Valley, where wa- ter shortage is common and much of the surface water car- ries unacceptable levels of dissolved ﬂuoride. The 440 km2 study area lies in the northern part of Arumeru district and is dominated by Mt. Meru (4565 m a.s.l.). The local climate is semi-arid, with distinct wet and dry seasons. Four hy- drogeological complexes were identiﬁed, occurring within different volcanic formations, either alone or superimposed upon one another. The groundwater ﬂow system was inter- preted from the spatial distribution of the springs, combined with a lithology- and geometry-based reconstruction of the aquifers. The dominant pattern consists of a multi-directional ﬂow from the higher elevations in the south towards the lower areas in the north, but this is complicated by structures such as grabens, faults, lava domes and tholoids. After the identi- ﬁcation of the major ﬂuoride source, an interference pattern between groundwater and high ﬂuoride surface water was drawn. Finally, vertical electrical soundings were performed to deﬁne the location of aquifers in regions where release of ﬂuoride was prevented. The methodological approach for the prospecting of safe water in a semi-arid, ﬂuoride polluted re- gion was validated by the drilling of a 60 m deep well capable of supplying at least 3.8 l/s of low ﬂuoride, drinkable water.|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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