|Titolo:||The monumental submerged punic harbor of Malfatano and associated Piscinnì quarries, Archaeometric and Geoarchaeological approach|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Abstract:||The Ria of Malfatano is the site of the most important maritime structures from the Punic-Roman times in the Mediterranean, whereby the bay’s two opposing monumental structures have been preserved between - 7 and - 2 meters due to the rising sea levels. Piscinnì quarries have recently been recognized together with other archaeological finds belonging to the Punic and Late Antiquity ages (Orrù et al., 2014), these were built with littoral sandstones of the Last Interglacial (MIS 5,5) (Lecca and Carboni 2007). Piscinnì’s quarries because of the proximity of coastline to the basement didn’t have access from land, thus it is likely that the placement of the material was done by means of floats, as for the loading of materials from the quarry. However, we may assign the date of the structure to the Carthaginian age (Mastino et al., 2005). Considering the military strategy adopted by Carthage from their second treatise with Rome in the middle of IV century B.C., it is eminently possible to envisage a military function of this port basin (V-III century B.C.; 2400±100 ky BP). Piscinnì quarries provided an extremely selective quality of construction material, sandstones and microconglomerates with strong carbonatic cementation, a lithotype that can easily and quickly be worked and which has good geomechanical characteristics both in terms of breaking loads and resistance to alteration. Using a high resolution terrain model has been possible to estimate the total extracted volume of about 120,000 m3, for coastal quarries and about 30.000 m3 for submerged quarries area; only a small proportion, estimated at 25,000 m3 was used for the realization of the crowning work of the breakwater at the entrance of Capo Malfatano bay. There is also an extensive use of sandstone in the Bithia settlement, where, from the Phoenician tombs in the necropolis to the buildings found in the acropolis area in Torre di Chia to the Punic sanctuary of Bes,(Bassoli et al., 2013). Rocks analysis and high detail measures have involved both submerged reefs, harbor and quarries using a HR side scan sonar (800 kHz), while for the quarries coastal areas aerophotogrammetric surveys were performed using a automatic navigation drone.|
|Tipologia:||4.1 Contributo in Atti di convegno|
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