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Titolo: Transport and sedimentation dynamics of transitional explosive eruption columns: the exemple of the 800 bp Quilotoa plinian eruption (Ecuador)
Data di pubblicazione: 2008
Abstract: Impact of large-scale explosive eruptions largely depends on the dynamics of transport, dispersal and deposition of ash by the convective system. In fully convective eruptive columns, ejected gases and particles emitted at the vent are vertically injected into the atmosphere by a narrow, buoyant column and then dispersed by atmosphere dynamics on a regional scale. In fully collapsing explosive eruptions, ash partly generated by secondary fragmentation is carried and dispersed by broad co-ignimbrite columns ascending above pyroclastic currents. In this paper, we investigate the transport and dispersion dynamics of ash and lapillis during a transitional plinian eruption in which both plinian and co-ignimbrite columns coexisted and interacted. The 800 BP eruptive cycle of Quilotoa volcano (Ecuador) produced a well-exposed tephra sequence. Our study shows that the sequence was accumulated by a variety of eruptive dynamics, ranging from early small phreatic explosions, to sustained magmatic plinian eruptions, to late phreatomagmatic explosive pulses. The eruptive style of the main 800 BP plinian eruption (U1) progressively evolved from an early fully convective column (plinian fall bed), to a late fully collapsing fountain (dense density currents) passing through an intermediate transitional eruptive phase (fall+syn-plinian dilute density currents). In the transitional U1 regime, height of the convective plinian column and volume and runout of the contemporaneous pyroclastic density currents generated by partial collapses were inversely correlated. The convective system originated from merging of co-plinian and co-surge contributions. This hybrid column dispersed a bimodal lapilli and ash-fall bed whose grain size markedly differs from that of classic fall deposits accumulated by fully convective plinian columns. Sedimentological analysis suggests that ash dispersion during transitional eruptions is affected by early aggregation of dry particle clusters.
Tipologia:1.1 Articolo in rivista

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