Please note that ALL students ( 2nd years and F.C. in Lettere, Filosofia, Beni Culturali) need to enrol online from their homepage for the TEST D’INGRESSO for LAB.1 INGLESE on 16.00.2104. (9am in Aula 15 and 17) .
NB The test on 1st OCTOBER is reserved for students who have ALREADY tried and NOT passed the test in previous years.
The textbook for the LAB. 1 course is :
Global –Digital Pre-Intermediate (Macmillan) (Coursebook And Eworkbook) Isbn: 9780230033122.
Lessons start next Tuesday, 1st October as per timetable.
Please remember that these tests are ONLY for students who were enrolled for the lab. last year or in previous years and DID NOT pass the test. (i.e. January 2013, May 2013) No other students can be accepted at this test.
Please note that any students (NOT FIRST YEARS) interested in attending Lab. 1 lessons are invited to a meeting on
TUESDAY, 24.09.2013 AT 12.00 in Room 17.
Please note that on Tuesday 17th September I shall be in the office from 14.00- 15.30.
I will NOT be in the office on Thursday, 19th September.
Please contact me for any urgent matters at email@example.com
I am in the office on
TUESDAYS 10.30 – 12
THURSDAYS 10.30 – 12
Please note that due to tests I may not be
around on TUESDAY 17th September.
First of all, just to tell you that enrolment for the test is already online via ESSE3. There will be a difference between frequentante /non- frequentante so be careful! that you did not go over the number of absences!!! or if you did you should have talked to me!
Then for those of you who will be going on with Lab 2 in the second semester, the test d’ingresso is on 14 February. Even if you do not intend taking the test but wish to attend lessons you need to enrol.
Finally , have a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New year.
Well, our lessons are coming to an end and we’ve almost finished the syllabus! So this week we looked again at the use of “have to/ must / don’t have to” BUT in the past tense.
HAD TO is the
Past tense of must / have to
I wasn’t at the lesson yesterday because I had to go to the doctor!
CAN/ CAN’T also express possibility/permission or not to do something!
|Obligation (MUST/ HAVE TO)||You MUST/HAVE TO eat 5 pieces of fruit a day.||PROHIBITION MUSTN’T||You MUSTN’T drink that water.|
|Rules (have to)||In GB YOU HAVE TO drive on the left.|
|Possibility/permission Can||YOU CAN smoke here!||PROHIBITIONCan’t||You CAN’T smoke in here!|
|NOT NECESSARYDON’T HAVE TO(DIDN’T HAVE TO)||John DOESN’T HAVE TO get up tomorrow. It’s a holiday!|
|COULD||When I was a child, I COULD eat anything I liked and I never put on weight.||COULDN’T||When I was a child I COULDN’T stay out all night!|
|HAD TO||I wasn’t at school yesterday because I HAD TO go to the dentist!|
Then we had a look at relative pronouns.
WHO/THAT/WHICH are relative pronouns.
I know a man. He can speak Japanese. = I know a man WHO can speak Japanese.
WHO is used for people NOT things but you can say: (I know a man THAT can speak Japanese) (WHO is more frequent)
THAT is used for people and things
I have a watch. It is very old. = I have a watch WHICH is very old.
(I have a watch THAT is very old ) .
Use of where: The hotel where we stayed was very expensive.
Please note that our final lesson 13.12.2011 by popular demand will be in the morning at 11 in Aula 15. You will need to cofirm that you are coming during lessons next week!
See you soon!
Well , here’s the grammar we did this week! Passives, Must , infinitive of purpose!
PASSIVE is /are/was /were
This PC was/ is made in China!
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. (active sentence)
( Agent V
Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. (passive sentence)
The passive is formed from be + past participle. (ONLY BE CHANGES!)
I was born in London. Where and when were you born? I wasn’t born in Ca.
MADE in Italy. Fiat cars ARE MADE in Italy. My watch is made in China! Is this wine made in Sardinia?
She has been to France! This car will be made by robots in the future!
Often we don’t include the agent of the action, because we do not know the agent; the agent is not important; the agent is obvious.
They clean the offices every day.
The offices are cleaned every day.
FIATS ARE MADE IN ITALY.
……………. WAS WRITTEN BY………..; WAS PAINTED BY; WAS DIRECTED BY; WAS MADE IN (YEAR, COUNTRY); was sung by
Questions (Subject questions!)
Who painted the Mona Lisa? Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa. WHAT DID L.PAINT?
Who wrote Harry Potter?
NB Who saw Luca? ( John saw Luca)
Who did Luca see? ( Luca saw Mike)
May might MAY I SIT HERE?
Can could I CAN SWIM.
Must ought to*
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without “to” (Exception “ought to”) The form is the same for all persons.
Eg, CAN in all forms ( NB he, she, it can)
(-) add NOT
I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they cannot (can’t) come
Can you swim?
Can you come to my party?
MUST /HAVE TO
Express rules or things that are necessary.
The house is dirty. I must clean it.
We don’t have any money. We must go to the bank.
Sometimes we can use either:
It’s a great book. You must/have to read it! He has to/must read the book!
NB when we talk about rules we often use “have to”
(Must generally refers to internal obligation , things that the speaker feels is necessary. )
“Have to” often expresses an external obligation ( a law, a rule etc. )
I must remember to buy some milk ( I feel that it is necessary.)
You have to have a license to drive a car! ( law!)
Remember that “have to” is conjugated ! ( have to/ has to)
Do you have to wear a uniform at school?
Expresses a prohibition, not allowed!(sbagliato o proibito farlo)
You mustn’t touch the picture. It’s very valuable!
You mustn’t smoke here!
CAREFUL!!! (DING DING DING!!!)
Don’t/doesn’t have to mean that IT is NOT NECESSARY TO DO SOMETHING( NON SONO TENUTO A FARLO(OBBLIGATO A FARLO).
You don’t have to read Hamlet for the English lab! ( You can read it if you want!)
YOU mustn’t read the Kama Sutra! (Vietato!!!!)
INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE
We use “to + infinitive” to say why we do things.
Why did you go to the butcher’s?”
“I went to the butcher’s to buy some meat!”
They’re going to London to see the Queen!
Looks like the lesson by popular demand will be on 13.12.2011- will confirm time during lesson!
Enjoy the weekend , rain or shine???
Here’s what we did this week! Present Perfect, more Present perfect and more Present Perfect!!!
Here’s the grammar!!!
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (1. For experience)
S AUX (HAVE) PAST PARTICIPLE
I ‘ve (have) had many different jobs in my life!
S AUX (HAVE)+ not PAST PARTICIPLE
I haven’t been to the United States but I have been to Canada.
AUX (HAVE) S PAST PARTICIPLE ?
Have you ever been to New York? Have you ever eaten sushi?
Yes, I have / No, I haven’t. No, never! (I’ve never been to France!)
We are talking about the experience NOT when it happened. CFR
I’ve met Madonna! I met her two years ago.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE JUST(appena)
John and Sue have JUST arrived.
I’ve JUST had lunch!
ALREADY (già) (affirmative sentences usually)
Jim has already gone to bed. They have already arrived!
YET (negatives and questions) NB its position.
I haven’t finished yet! ( non ancora) I’ve already finished!
Have you been to see the new film yet?
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (1. For since)
The present perfect expresses unfinished states that began in the past and continue into the present.
How long have you been a teacher? I’VE BEEN A TEACHER SINCE 1980./ FOR 29 YEARS.
HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN ca? I’VE LIVED IN CA SINCE 1982/FOR 27 Years.
For twenty years = period of time
Since 1989 = a point in time
FOR SINCE (always Present Perfect)
10 minutes 3 years Tuesday 10 o’clock
A week a month January 24 I arrived
2 days a long time I was a child Christmas
For ever for ages 1976 I was a born
How long have you lived in London?
I’VE LIVED IN VENICE FOR TWO YEARS/since 2010.
I lived in Venice for two years.
For 2 months = Since August.
I arrived here 2 years ago. Cfr
When did John arrive in Paris? How long has John been in Paris?
He arrived here a week ago. He’s been here for a week/ since last Monday.
PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNFINISHED TIME
We use the PRESENT PERFECT with expressions like this week, in the last few months, today, this morning; all of these are connected to the present time.
I’ve had six cups of coffee today! ( Today is not finished)
How often have you been to the cinema this year? ( This year is not finished)
The Past Simple is used to talk about finished actions and states that happen in a period of time that is finished and not connected to the Present Time. We use time phrases like “ last week, three years ago”.
I drank six cups of coffee yesterday!
I went to the cinema last week
Present Perfect Simple with been and gone
Go went gone (been)
Ann has been to London. She has come back. (Be was /were been )
You:“Hello Ann! Where have you been?
Ann: “I’ve been to London!”
You ;What was London like?”
Ann: “It was great! I saw Big Ben!”
Where have you been ? have you ever been to Paris?
Ann has gone to London! She’s still there! Go went gone (been)
John: “Where’s Ann?”
Mike: “She’s not here! She’s gone to London on business!”
NO !!!!!!!Where have you gone??? XXXXXXXXX NO
Don’t forget that you need to practice as much as possible.!!! Talk to yourself!!! Imaginary conversations!!!
Try a drill !!! Take a simple sentence like:
I go to the cinema!!! Negative
I don’t go ……………………
Do you go …………………………….
I went to the cinema yesterday!
I didn’t go ……
Did you go………..?
Then try Present Cont. ; past Contin; Present perfect ; Future (all 3 forms) ; may/ might/ should; Invite/suggest (Answer too!)
DO you get the idea!!!!
Enjoy your weekend!!